Guillette, T.C., James McCord, Matthew Guillette, M.E. Polera, Kyle T. Rachels, Clint Morgeson, Nadine Kotlarz, Detlef R.U. Knappe, Benjamin J. Reading, Mark Strynar, Scott M. Belcher. (2020) Elevated levels of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in Cape Fear River Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) are associated with biomarkers of altered immune and liver function. Environment International 136, 105358. DOI:

  • PFOS was detected in all samples and had elevated levels in Cape Fear River fish.
  • Cape Fear River fish had detectable levels of a novel PFAS (Nafion byproduct 2).
  • PFOS positively associated with higher lysozyme activity in Cape Fear River fish.
  • Cape Fear River fish have 40 times higher PFAS body burden than a reference site.


Jackson, T..J., Gabriel A. Bendfeldt, Kelby A. Beam, Kylie D. Rock, Scott M. Belcher. (2020) Heterozygous mutation of sonic hedgehog receptor (Ptch1) drives cerebellar overgrowth and sex-specifically alters hippocampal and cortical layer structure, activity, and social behavior in female mice. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 78, 106866. DOI:

  • Dysregulation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling caused cerebellar and cortical neuron overgrowth.
  • Haploinsufficiency of the SHH receptor Patched (Ptch1+/−) altered activity and social behavior in adult females.
  • Activity and behavior were not impacted in male Ptch1+/− mutant mice.
  • Haploinsufficiency of PTCH caused cerebellar neuron overgrowth in lobules IV/V and IX of both sexes.
  • Hippocampal structure and cellularity of the isocortex were altered in Ptch1+/− females, but not males.